Man's hand holding red radio in front of turquoise wall and polka dot curtain

Location Early childhood development



16% of Mozambique’s population is under the age of five and more than half of this group is at risk of poor development (UNICEF, 2021).

Munnuwelo (meaning “childhood” in Makhuwa) aims to shift caregivers’ behaviours and improve the developmental outcomes of children aged under 3.




Early childhood development


40 x radio spots, 60 x long format radio shows, and 5 x training workshops


December 2022 – February 2026


We estimate Munnuwelo will reach over 8.9 million people

Our Approach


Understanding the ECD landscape

We conducted formative research to better understand barriers and facilitators to ECD behaviours. With support from our research partners, Feeding the Change, we carried out 92 focus group discussions, 13 caregiver observations, and 11 community interviews across Nampula, Zambezia, and Manica provinces. We also engaged with fellow grantees PATH, ChildFund, Wona Sanana, UNICEF and USAID to better understand the current ECD landscape in Mozambique and consider how Munnuwelo could complement existing ECD initiatives.

At the end of the campaign, DMI will conduct an endline survey to assess the impact of the campaign outcomes.


Identifying barriers to behaviour change

Our aim is to complement and amplify the work of other ECD partners in Mozambique, particularly those working to encourage fathers to increase their involvement. We are also building on our previous ECD work as part of the FCDO-funded Addressing Stunting in Tanzania Early (ASTUTE).

We collated the findings from the formative research and the discussions with partners to produce the campaign’s ‘message briefs’ which clearly highlight the behaviours to promote, the reasons why changing these behaviours brings positive results, and the main barriers to behaviour change, helping to inform creative decisions. We have produced two message briefs for Munnuwelo, on ECD (covering the topics of: communication & language, play, love & affection, and encouragement & discipline) and on complementary feeding.


28 months, 40 spots, 12 languages

We will broadcast radio spots nationally on a network of community and provincial radio stations. In addition, long-format, interactive programming will be broadcast on a selection of the most popular radio stations in Nampula province.

The key target audience will be caregivers of children under 3 years and expectant parents, who listen to the radio. According to 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data and census projections, it is estimated that there are over 16 million radio listeners in Mozambique. Based on radio exposure data collected during the endline survey of Scaling up Lives Saved in Mozambique, we estimate Munnuwelo will reach a total of 8.9 million people.

Project impact

Project impact

Our evaluation plans

We will assess the impact of the campaign by:

  1. comparing the prevalence of outcomes of interest among those exposed to the campaign messages with those unexposed
  2. comparing these to the baseline prevalence for outcomes related to ECD and complementary feeding awareness, attitudes and behaviours.

We will select matched clusters in areas that receive the radio spots-only campaign and in areas that receive the radio spots and interactive show radio programming. This will allow us to conduct a sensitivity analysis to explore whether the impact on indicators varies by exposure to the type of campaign, i.e. only radio spots vs. exposure via both radio spots and interactive radio show programming.

We will conduct a process evaluation of the intervention, including qualitative research with the public to assess exposure, acceptability, and attitudes to the campaign and reported impact. We will also conduct qualitative research with caregivers exposed to the intervention to explore their attitudes towards the campaign and impact on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour change.

Partners & Funders

We are grateful to the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation for funding this intervention, and to Feeding the Change for their research contribution.