Location Nutrition



A large proportion of the Mozambican population consumes foods that are insufficiently diverse in fats, protein, and micronutrients. 4 in 10 households report no consumption of iron-rich foods in the last seven days. 44% of Mozambican women of reproductive age are anaemic, and 43% of children under-5 are stunted.

Poor dietary diversity, caused most directly by a lack of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet, drives persistent undernutrition in Mozambique. Insufficient availability, accessibility, affordability, and desirability lead to low consumption of these foods. This is especially true amongst those in the bottom of the pyramid (BOP), i.e. the poorest two-thirds of the population. Alongside a supply-side intervention developed by the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN), DMI produced an evidence-based, results oriented social and behaviour change (SBC) campaign strategy to increase the frequency of ASF consumption among BOP households in rural and peri-urban settings of the Nacala and Beira corridors in Mozambique. DMI has also been awarded subsequent funding to implement its proposed SBC strategy over three years, from 2023 – 2026.




Nutrition – food diversification


A social behaviour change strategy


DMI developed the SBC strategy over a period of nine weeks between July and September 2022.

Our Approach


Formative research was conducted by GAIN’s external research partners to explore current practices, barriers, and facilitators of ASF consumption among the target population: BOP households, defined as men and women in households living under USD 3.20 per person per day, in rural and peri-urban settings within the Nacala and Beira corridors in Mozambique.

Drawing on findings from the formative research, DMI conducted a context analysis to understand current ASF consumption patterns, how they vary among sub-groups, and drivers of ASF consumption. Key individual, household, community, and structural level barriers and facilitators of ASF consumption were identified using a socio-ecological framework. The combined data was then used to inform an SBC strategy to promote an increase in frequency of ASF consumption among the target audience.


While the target audience is largely knowledgeable on the nutritional and health benefits of ASF, we found that several misperceptions relating to the health implications of ASF impact their consumption.

ASF consumption is largely influenced by gender roles, social norms, and geographical factors. While there is regular consumption of dried and smoked fish, households tend to buy only a limited quantity of fresh fish due to affordability. Women and mothers often only eat the fish heads, prioritising the rest of the fish for their husband and children. They also often feel embarrassed to eat eggs and fried chicken in markets for fear of being perceived as ‘bad mothers’. Despite ease of availability in urban areas, finding ASF in rural and peri-urban areas is difficult and largely influenced by infrastructural and environmental factors. For instance, conservation of fresh fish is a challenge for most of the target audience who do not own freezers or live in areas with electricity, and egg consumption is low in rural areas due to a reliance on imported eggs.

DMI determined that the SBC campaign should aim to increase regular consumption of any available ASF of choice to account for the geographic and seasonal variances in availability and affordability of ASF; and to promote increased consumption among women of BOP households.

A radio demonstrating the distribution mechanism used in this campaign


DMI proposed a multi-pronged communication strategy comprising mass and social media activities reaching a wider target audience, and more targeted community level activities such as in store promotions and road shows to promote behaviour change.

59% urban and 52% rural Mozambicans listen to the radio at least once a week (DHS 2011). The prevalence of radio broadcasting in local languages makes it an ideal medium to reach rural populations who are not fluent in Portuguese. Mozambique’s rich and diverse radio environment of over 150 local, provincial, and national radio stations allows us to reach most of the population and presents the most cost-effective means of reaching a BOP audience at scale and should be prioritised.

During the implementation of the strategy over the next three years, DMI will complement the radio campaign with distribution on TV, social media, and printed materials at points of sale to engage audiences. Given the diverse distribution channels, DMI will build a solid campaign identity using consistent slogans, imagery, characters, and messages across platforms. We intend for the campaign to develop an emotional association in the target audience between ASF consumption and ideas of happiness, health, and unity in the family.

Partners & Funders

We are grateful to The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) for supporting this project.

What's next?

Further funding

DMI has been awarded subsequent funding to implement its proposed SBC strategy over three years. Sabor, meaning flavour in Portuguese, is a radio, TV, and social media campaign which will run from May 2023-December 2025.